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Full text of "The Home Moravian Church"

THE HOME MORAVIAN CHURCH 



Frank P. Albright 



THE LIBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF 

NORTH CAROLINA 

AT CHAPEL HILL 




THE COLLECTION OF 
NORTH CAROLINIANA 

PRESENTED BY 

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Tho 

Homo ^Moravian Church 



by 

Frank P. Albright 

1983 

Winston-Salem, N. C 



Dedicated 

to 

The Home Church Interpreters 



Printed By 

Winston Printing Company 

1983 

Copyright ©1983 Home Moravian Church 






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Fig. 1 




Fig. 2 




Fig. 3 




Fig. 4 




Fig. 5 




Fig. 6 




Fig. 7 




Fig. 8 




Fig. 9 




Fig. 10 




Fig. 11 




Fig. 12 




Fig. 13 




Fig. 14 


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Fig. 15 


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Fig. 16 


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Fig. 17 


Fig. 18 




Fig. 19 


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5 





Marshall's plan of the church foundations and walls. 

Marshall's plan of the church at balcony level. 

Marshall's revised plan of the church. 

Plan of the south walls. 

Plan of the west facade. 

Drawing of the west facade, probably by Marshall. 

Marshall's drawing of a roof truss. 

Roof truss as built. 

Lovefeast kitchen of 1800-1870. 

Furnace area under the church. 

Northwest corner of church with 1841-1913 corpse house. 
Also showing Flemish bond brickwork. 

View from south inside church showing first gas lights. 

The church in 1866 decorated for the centennial of Salem. 

The church from northwest showing 1841 chapel and pas- 
tor's dwelling. 

1853 drawing from southwest showing corridor wall. 

Tannenberg organ and organ gallery with new gas lights 
after the 1870 alteration. 

View to east showing balconies, new pews, and new chancel 
after the 1870 alteration. 

View to west (ca. 1900-1912) showing embossed metal 
ceiling. 

Organ bellows in the church attic. 



J^rcfaa 



This terse history of the Home Moravian Church was compiled 
primarily for the benefit of the Home Church interpreters. As the 
church is situated in Old Salem and is one of the principal build- 
ings of that restored town, the many visitors to the restoration 
were interested in seeing the inside as well as the outside of it, but 
the church is not restored and thus is not on Old Salem's tour. The 
church officials, therefore, asked for volunteers to greet the visi- 
tors and explain the church to them. For some years now, the 
church has been open to visitors from 1:30 to 3:30 in the afternoons 
from March through November with two interpreters present. 

It was soon discovered that visitors were interested not only in 
the church building, but in the history, principles, and beliefs of 
the Moravian denomination as well. Because this phase of in- 
terpretation is covered by other publications, the present treatise 
is concerned only with the church buildings. 

Since illustrations are referred to at various points of the text, 
they have been grouped at the back for most convenient access. 
And since in the church's complicated history and growth various 
elements could not be explained entirely in chronological se- 
quence, a simple index has been appended. Footnotes have been 
kept to a minimum. 

It is hoped this little volume will be found helpful and interest- 
ing not only to church interpreters but to the general public as 
well. 



The> 



Homo ^AoraVian Church 

There is nothing extant in records informing us when the Mora- 
vians first thought of building a church in Salem. It was not an idea 
that came to them at a specific time. To build a church was taken 
for granted even before they decided on a site for Salem, which site 
was chosen on February 14, 1765. l The site for Salem was sur- 
veyed, the streets laid out, and the location for the town square 
selected. The first trees were felled to start construction of the town 
January 6, 1766. Since the town plan was one with which the 
people were in a general way acquainted from similar towns in 
Europe, we may be sure that they also visualized a church in the 
center of the square or on one of the sides. This, however, had to 
come later, the first priority being to get the houses and businesses 
going. 

The surveyor, Christian Gottlieb Reuter, 2 drew the line for the 
main street north-south, not on the ridge of the land, which sloped 
gently southward to Salem Creek and less gently westward, but 
three hundred feet down the westward incline so that the street 
would be more nearly on one grade. A lower street was then laid to 
the west and a higher one to the east on the very ridge of the hill. 
The town square would then be between the main and the high 
streets. 

The first place of worship was the temporary Gemein Saal (con- 
gregation hall) in the Second House on the main street, a two-story 
house built in 1767. Then on Sunday, November 13, 1771, the new 
Gemein Saal was dedicated in the newly constructed Gemein Haus 
on the high street opposite the square, which occupied the place 
where Main Hall of Salem College now stands. This was the be- 
ginning of Salem Congregation. The Single Sisters (the unmarried 
women) were assigned land south of the Gemein Haus, where their 
house was built opposite the south end of the town square. The 
space between the Gemein Haus and the Sisters House was visual- 
ized as a possible location for the church at some later date. 



The Moravians had realized for some time that the Saal in the 
Gemein Haus was too small for many of their services; or as they 
stated it in the Wachovia Memorabilia for 1797: 'Tor a number of 
years the Saal has been too small for our own congregation." Salem 
at that time housed 142 Communicants. Then on Easter Sunday, 
April 16, 1797, the Salem Diary records, "Because of the large 
number who again came this year the congregation assembled in 
front of the Gemein Haus." They estimated the number to be about 
nine hundred. "At nine o'clock Br. Benzien preached in English. 
Only the visitors attended, filling the Saal, the little Saal, the 
steps, and the halls, and more than a hundred and fifty who could 
not find place inside standing on the street outside the house." The 
following Easter, because the Saal was too small, the people met in 
front of the Gemein Haus and went from there to "God's Acre," the 
graveyard, for the Easter service. 

On April 19, 1797, the Elders Conference (Board of Elders) again 
discussed the long-intended building of a new Gemein Saal. They 
gave up their first plan for locating the church just south of the 
Gemein Haus, which would have deprived the Single Sisters of 
most of their yard, "unless the Savior ordered it." They put the 
question to the lot 3 and the lot said "No." The location just east of 
the boys school and north of the town square was also disapproved 
by the lot, but the location north of the Gemein House was 
approved. "Br. Marshall 4 undertook to make the preliminary 
plans for the church, the wish being expressed that the building 
might be placed with the gable end, and especially the steeple, 
toward the street, the principal reason being that the people might 
not be inconvenienced by the sun." A week later Br. Marshall 
presented the Conference with a plan for the church and again a 
revised plan on the following day. 5 Many points were discussed but 
no action taken because "It was particularly wished that no mis- 
takes be made in the size of the Saal." In a few months they had 
obtained a plan of the Lititz, Pennsylvania, church, which they 
used for comparison to see if they could use some of it or improve 
upon it. During the rest of the year and a half of 1798 they worked 
on the church plan (Figs. 1-5) and assiduously gathered building 
material for the new church, in which all Wachovia helped, some 
Brethren from Friedberg hauling stones from as far as South Fork, 
about ten miles. 

As late in the year 1798 as May 17, the Aufseher Collegium 
(business supervising committee) and the Elders Conference held 



a meeting to decide where to place the organ, which had recently 
been commissioned from David Tannenberg of Lititz, Pa. It had 
been planned to place the organ on the south balcony, opposite the 
minister ( Fig. 2 ), but some suggested placing it on the west balcony 
under the steeple. They left the decision to the Lord in the lot, and 
"The Savior approved that plans be made to place the organ in the 
new church in the gallery on the steeple side." Thereupon the 
balconies at each end of the sanctuary were enlarged enough to 
accommodate the organ, and a narrow walk replaced the proposed 
south balcony. The church was to be enlarged somewhat to com- 
pensate for the seats lost by eliminating the south balcony. The 
Saal was to be 72' long, 41 ' wide, and the ceiling 26' high. Outside 
dimensions were to be 92' by 46' with brick walls 2'6" thick. 

The argument for placing the organ at the west end has not come 
down to us. The size of the dotted outline indicating the organ in 
the Fig. 2 drawing suggests the 1797 Tannenberg organ was 
thought of when the plan was made. But in May of 1798 it was 
known that the organ Tannenberg was building for the church 
would be too large for the 13' wide location as proposed. Therefore 
either a wider south balcony would have to be built to receive it or 
the organ would have to be placed elsewhere. Construction econo- 
my may also have been a factor. Placing the organ on the end 
balcony would not only eliminate the need for the difficult south 
balcony, but it would also be unnecessary to build the south vesti- 
bule two stories high. 

Meanwhile with church plans virtually complete — though not 
without details being changed as work progressed — stone and 
timber was being brought to the site, Joseph Essie was in the 
valley east of the church site making bricks, and Gottlob Krause 
began in October burning roof tiles. On May 25 the place for the 
church was carefully staked out, and during the following week 
ground was broken. On Tuesday, June 12, the cornerstone was set. 
"At eight o'clock in the morning all the residents of Salem 
gathered, and with them nearly all the ministers, and a large 
number of Brethren and Sisters from our other congregations. We 
met in the Gemein Saal, which could not begin to hold everybody. 
The copper box was placed by the Brethren of the Heifer Conferenz 
filrs Ganze 6 in the foundation stone at the southwest corner of the 
building." 

The grading and excavating had been completed before June 12, 
and work on building the foundation followed at once, almost 



certainly on the same day after the dedication of the "foundation 
stone." This is the stone which we now call the cornerstone, and 
which now is not always placed in the corner. Also it is usually 
dedicated when the foundation is almost completed. In those days 
it was the cornerstone in reality and was usually the beginning of 
the building project. 

As late as May 11, 1798, William Grieg, who had built chimneys 
and fireplaces in Friedland, was being considered for the job of 
constructing the foundation. He got the contract and could have 
begun his project early in June with preliminary work before the 
cornerstone dedication. The foundation was completed that year, 
but that was all the construction that could be accomplished in 
1798. 

The foundation is a rather massive structure, mainly three feet 
or more in thickness, and made of mostly quite large stones. The 
foundation had to be dug down to solid ground or stone stereo and 
its footing spread out somewhat wider. 

The land at the site slopes eastward, and while the northwest 
corner had exposure of only a few feet above the ground, at the east 
end the top of the foundation was seven feet above ground. This 
required seven feet height of foundation to be finished on the 
outside surface, and must of it on the inside surface as well, for it 
included a kitchen with corner fireplace for the preparation of 
lovefeast coffee. 7 The foundation work also included a series of 
piers and cross walls within the circuit of the outer walls, which 
has a lineal length of approximately 275 feet. 

The basement kitchen at the east end for the preparation of 
lovefeast elements required extra work for the stone masons (Fig. 
9). This structure comprised two rooms, the southern one, the 
kitchen room, being 23' 1" long by 10' 10" wide and 8'2" high to the 
ceiling. The tandem room on its northern end is a vault 16'4" long 
by 10'6" wide (its walls slightly thicker than those of the kitchen) 
and 8' high. The northeast corner of the vault and the southeast 
corner of the kitchen have the corners cut off as if for a corner 
fireplace, but they are instead solid stone for extra strength and 
stability. But the northeast corner of the kitchen does have a 
corner fireplace slightly more than four feet wide with the chimney 
above the foundation built into the center of the brick wall. This is 
a somewhat unusual construction. The kitchn has a door at the 
south end leading to the outside, and it had an opening at the north 
end about four feet wide leading to the vault room, which was 



utilized for the storage of lovefeast supplies and firewood for the 
fireplace. The opening was later narrowed and closed with a door. 
There is a chute in the north foundation of the vault through which 
wood could be slid in. It is wider at the lower end so that wood 
should not get wedged in and clog the chute. The vault also has a 
narrow vent in its east wall. The floor is earth, but the kitchen has 
a brick floor. 

Foundation was also required at the south entrance of the 
church, known as the women's entrance (or Sisters entrance) be- 
cause the women entered by it and occupied the east side of the 
church, while the men entered by the west entrance and sat on the 
west side. 

The first plans called for a corridor 10' wide and about 50' in 
length enclosed by a high wall from the street along the south side 
of the church, terminating at the entrance hall, or vestibule, 10' by 
13'. On the south of the vestibule was to be a combination nursery 
room 13' by 16' and lovefeast kitchen with a corner fireplace in the 
northeast corner (Fig. 1). A slight change in plan places the kitch- 
en fireplace in the northwest corner of a basement room under the 
nursery and a stairs ascending to the vestibule from the northeast 
corner (Fig. 3). This was obviously considered as a lovefeast kitch- 
en. However, these plans were not carried out, as we have seen, 
and this kitchen and nursery were not built. It might have been 
more convenient than the kitchen under the east end of the church 
from which the lovefeast elements would have to be carried outside 
in order to get into the church sanctuary. More on this later. 

The first plan also called for a storage area under the east end of 
the church, all the way through from north to south (Fig. 1). But, as 
we have seen, part of the vault was built as on the plan, but the 
south part became the kitchen. This change was made at the 
beginning and not at a later time, for it had to be done before the 
brick walls were built with the chimney in the center of the wall. A 
storage vault would not have required a chimney. 

The Moravians had proposed facing the foundation with soap- 
stone (steatite) if they could find enough. They did find a quantity, 
but apparently not enough to cover the foundation, and so aban- 
doned that idea. They then used what soapstone they had collected 
as flooring in the main vestibule. 

Building the brick walls was a task even bigger than that of the 
foundation, for it consumed more than 300,000 bricks, and much of 
the work was up in the air, some as high as 30'. Nearly all of it 



required scaffolding — scaffolding on both sides of the walls, for 
the nearly 2V2' thick walls were to be even on both sides, plastered 
on the inside of the church and the bricks visible on the outside. 

The scaffolding probably had its own crew to erect and to change 
or heighten it as the walls went up. The scaffolds had also to be safe 
and rigid. As the walls rose, the inside and outside scaffolds could 
be tied together through door and window openings and also at 
some distance over the tops of the constructed parts of the walls. 
They were also fastened, in a way, to the wall itself by means of 
"pug-lock holes." At intervals a header brick (one with the narrow 
end visible on the finished wall, Fig. 11) would be left out and a 
timber from the scaffold inserted, thus tying the scaffold to the 
wall. This does not necessarily prevent the scaffold from falling 
away from the wall, but mainly it prevents it from rocking back 
and forth along the wall. Then, when the scaffold is removed, these 
pug-lock holes are filled with header bricks. By observing the 
mortar around these bricks, they can be spotted about six feet 
apart at a height even with the tops of the windows, and a few can 
be seen elsewhere. 

The size of bricks varies slightly, since bricks were made over 
quite a long period of time with differing weather and with differ- 
ing moisture in the clay so that the shrinkage varied. They aver- 
age slightly over 2" by 4" by 8". There is also a slight variation in 
thickness of mortar between the bricks. Thus the brick wall came 
out mostly a fraction under 2 '6" in thickness. The mortar seems to 
be, as far as can be seen now, entirely lime — no clay in the center 
of the wall. No lime is available locally, and records do not indicate 
any source, though they do mention its purchase. 

The walls are laid up in Flemish bond throughout, with courses 
of brick alternating headers and stretchers (Fig. 11). This is slower 
work than common bond, where the wall shows usually five to 
seven courses of stretchers and then a course of headers to tie the 
outer brick to the interior of the wall; but it is more solid and a more 
beautiful wall. It is more decorative. A few other decorative details 
were added to the brickwork. For the water table above the founda- 
tion, the first two courses of brick have the outer surface cut to a 
slant, bringing the wall above it back approximately four inches. 
At the top of the wall, at the start of the coved eaves, is a course of 
roundedged brick projecting two inches from the wall. And across 
the west front of the church is a projecting belt course of four 



10 



courses of plain brick at the same level. More decoration will be 
described below in connection with painting. 

Figures 3, 4, and 5 show the fenestration of the walls quite 
accurately as they were when the church was completed, except 
that Figure 3 does not show the small window in the south end of 
the west vestibule. The window was necessarily small because it 
was located under the stairway to the balcony level. 

Archival records do not tell us much about contructing the brick 
walls of the church, but here and there we do get a glimpse of it, 
mostly in financial records. The work probably started rather 
early in the spring of 1799. In March of 1798 Joseph Essie and 
others had already been busy making brick and hauling it to the 
building site, though construction of the walls did not start until 
1799. Therefore, spring of 1799 saw a stir of activity in the prepara- 
tion for and commencement of brick work. Many men were on the 
job. The only bricklayer mentioned by name is Gottlob Krause, 
who is frequently mentioned as being paid for mason's work. Other 
pay for workmen is listed but no names mentioned. Krause had 
been the* brick mason for several buildings in Salem and was 
surely, without specific statement, the chief mason on the church 
project. 

The walls were completed probably in early September, for on 
September 17 the rafters were all in place on the wall. 

We have previously mentioned the roofless high-walled corridor 
along the south side of the church from street to south vestibule. 
The windowless brick wall was 16" thick with an arched doorway 
at the street. It is difficult to find a reason for this odd structure, 
which actually detracts from the beauty of the church, as the 
Aufseher Collegium of a later time (1855) also conceded. 8 The 
reason for it might be somewhat the following: It was often custom- 
ary in Germany for men and women to sit on opposite sides of the 
church, usually the women on the right side. This would place the 
women in the Salem Church on the east side. Frequently these 
churces also had separate entrances for men and women; hence, 
the south, or side entrance. In order not to belittle the women by 
having them enter a side door, the corridor wall was built with a 
doorway at the street. Since no provision was made for windows in 
the wall, there probably was no thought of roofing it. 

Along with this wall, the south vestibule also presents an enig- 
ma, suggested by recorded minutes of the Aufseher Collegium 
meetings. To wit: September 1, 1823, "The Aeltesten Conferenz 



11 



[Elders Committee] has proposed a change in the vestibule on the 
Sisters side of our church. Collegium thinks it will be very well to 
lower the long wall to the entrance. The lower timbers of the 
vestibule have rotted, and it should be taken down and rebuilt as 
large as possible, which will make a good place during the services 
for mothers with little children. Also the door that leads into the 
vestibule should be as large if not larger than the church door at 
the Sisters side." A more literal and in this instance a better 
translation would be: "The vestibule should be torn down since the 
timbers at the bottom are rotten (or the bottom of the timbers), and 
rebuilt as large as possible . . ."The word translated timbers might 
mean beams or joists or rafters or any other wood of similar di- 
mensions. 

Repair of the rotten timbers might have been made, but the 
vestibule evidently was not rebuilt at that time, nor the outside 
door widened. 

December 24, 1827, "The door by which the Sisters leave shall be 
made wider, and it is recommended that it shall open outward." We 
obviously do not have all of their discussion here, but they are 
preparing to do something about the vestibule. About two weeks 
later, January 7, 1828, "For the sake of symmetry the door into the 
entrance room on the Sisters side of the church shall be made like 
the main door. The brick wall at the south side of the church shall 
be lowered to two feet and eight inches." Definite plans that have 
the ring of an order. But, a pencil drawing dated February 26, 
1853, shows this long wall and the roof of the vestibule (Fig. 15). 
And the Collegium minutes of May 21, 1855, has a paragraph, "On 
account of the new boarding school building it is desirable to 
change the sisters' entrance to the church, which does not serve to 
adorn the church. Therefore, it was decided to take down the wall 
which stands next to it and put a wider corridor with a correspond- 
ingly wider staircase fstepsl there. This also would enable the 
sisters to leave the church a good deal more quickly." 9 

The wall was removed and the corridor widened to 15 '6" with a 
banister instead of a wall on its south side, butting against the new 
girls boarding school, which was built in 1855. 

The wall was removed in 1855, but what about the vestibule? It 
obviously was rebuilt at some time on the old foundation, and not 
larger, using many of the old bricks. Some of the bricks appear to 
be similar to those of the south passage connecting the 1870 east 



12 



addition to the church with the boarding school, the passage also 
built in 1870. 

The bricks were laid up in Flemish bond, but the workmanship is 
crude compared with the rest of the church, omitting closure bricks 
on the left side of the door and the two window openings. Apparent- 
ly they ran out of the narrow closure bricks. 

What probably happened in the delay of the rebuilding of the 
vestibule is that they found it cheaper to keep on repairing the 
rotting timbers than tear down and rebuild an enlarged vestibule, 
even in 1855 when the corridor and its three steps at the west end 
were widened. 

The vestibule apparently had a door on its eastern side with a 
stairs leading down to the level of the lovefeast kitchen door for 
conveying the lovefeast elements from the kitchen to the sanctu- 
ary. It may have been the lower part of this woodwork — the 
stairs, the door casing, and perhaps the wooden floor timbers at the 
door — that "have rotted" in 1823. Whether this stairs was roofed 
is not known. There is no evidence of it now. 

In 1870, when the new kitchen was built with access directly to 
the sanctuary, this stairs and door were no longer necessary; and 
while other changes and modifications were being made, now was 
the time to rebuild the vestibule rather than to patch it, at the 
same time widening the door. The east vestibule window has now a 
granite sill which is obviously cut later than the south much 
weathered sill. This supports the theory of the door and stairs. 

Now to return to the year 1799 after this excursion into later 
years: After the brick walls were built, the next task was raising 
the roof timbers, and this was probably the most difficult and 
perilous one. 

"Mr. Wolff," and presumably this was John Adam Wolff, applied 
for the carpentry work July 3, 1798. A contract was signed more 
than a year later, July 13, 1799, 10 with John Adam Wolff, Lewis 
(Ludwig) Wolff, and Daniel Wolff, all of whom lived near Bethania 
and were members of the Lutheran Church. The contract calls for 
them to do the framing, that is, the rough carpentry; but the doors, 
windows, and casings, and all the finishing work was to be done by 
the Salem joiners. 

These joiners had been working on the door and window casings 
before and during the time the brick walls were going up so that 
the casings could be bricked in with the walls. Similarly, the stone 



13 



masons had fashioned the stone door and window sills which had to 
be bricked in. These are the first stone window sills in Salem. 

The first task of rough carpentry was the roof. It was completed 
before the floors, balconies, and other inside work was done to keep 
the latter work out of the uncertain weather. Therefore a space of 
ground was cleared on the north side of the church, near which all 
the timber had been piled for drying, and on which the timbers 
could be measured out and cut, trimmed, and fitted together as 
required. Salem workmen had had considerable experience in this 
kind of work, witness the Single Brothers House, the Single Sisters 
House, the Tavern and other large buildings, but the church roof 
was somewhat more difficult, for these other buildings contained 
several floors between ground and roof and also smaller rooms — 
smaller space to span than the church with a space of 41 ' and walls 
27' above the foundation. 

The most difficult were the five trusses 50' long and 25' high 
(Figs. 7 & 8). They were prepared — prefabricated — on the 
ground and then disassembled, hoisted on top of the walls and 
again reassembled. 

The wood is hard yellow pine. The tie beam, which is also one of 
the joists, is hewn square 12" by 12" and 50' long, the ends cham- 
fered 45° and mortises cut to receive the tenons of the lower ends of 
the rafters and of the struts. Mortises were also cut on the sides of 
the tie beams about 10' apart near the center to receive the tenons 
of carrier beams, which carry the ends of the joists. The rafters and 
the three chords are similarly hewn to proper sizes with mortises 
and tenons cut, as illustrated in Figure 8. All were fitted together 
and holes bored at the joints and fitted with pegs. Holes were also 
bored in the lower chord for the two one-inch-square iron rods 
which support the tie beam. The corresponding holes in the tie 
beam can best be bored directly below when the tie beam and the 
chords are in place. The trusses were not built precisely as Br. 
Marshall had first drawn them, as is shown in Figures 7 and 8. The 
"principal rafter" part was omitted and the rafters made stronger, 
measuring nearly 12" in depth and about 7" to 8" or even 9" in 
width. The purlins were mortised directly into the truss rafters. 

Now to get all this up on the walls and fitted together! This 
required a lot of scaffolding in the church from the ground up, and a 
hoist rigged on the outside to lift the timbers. The two wall plates 
on each wall, 6" by 9" (Fig. 7), the end joist, and probably the first 
rafters on the brick end-gables, were already in place. The 50' tie 



14 



beam of No. I truss was hoisted up and put in place over the 
scaffolding, with its center probably supported from below. Then 
the carrier beams had to be fitted in from the first joist to the tie 
beam. Construction probably started from the east end, for the 
trusses are marked on their east sides from I to V. 

Now other joists could be placed on the 12' space between the tie 
beam and the east gable wall. There are three principal joists 12" 
by 8" between the truss and the end wall, and three between each 
succeeding two trusses, and four secondary joists 12" by 3", one 
between each two principal joists. The principal joists are hand 
hewn, but the secondary are sawn on the vertical-blade sawmill 
and fairly well dressed. All joists are each in three pieces; those in 
the center are about 10' long. Those on the ends are nearly 20' long 
with the outer ends cut to a 45° slant (the slope of the roof) and 
mortised for the rafter. Then boards for a temporary floor could be 
laid on for scaffolding. 

The next tie beam could now be brought up and thus the process 
repeated until the joists were all in place. Those joists in and on 
both sides of the west-end vestibule tower were probably placed as 
the brick tower was being built. 

Next came the difficult job of assembling the trusses. They were 
25' high and the timbers heavy. The whole truss weighs approx- 
imately 4,000 pounds. The job was difficult because the heavy 
timbers were tenoned into the various peices in various places and 
from various sides and all had to be assembled at the same time. In 
addition to the pieces as seen in Figures 7 and 8, there are the 
purlins and the angular struts along the plane of the roof from the 
lower end of the truss rafter up to the purlin. It is a veritable and 
large size puzzle! When the truss was assembled, the two 1" square 
iron rods were inserted from the bottom to bind the tie beam to the 
lower chord (also called the straining piece), which serve as sup- 
ports for the tie beam. Then any temporary support from beneath 
could be removed and the attic floor, or sanctuary ceiling, was 
self-supporting. 

On September 17 the "roof timbers of the new church were 
raised," which means that the five trusses and all rafters were in 
place on the walls. That does not mean that they were all put up in 
one day, a task which may have taken several weeks. It means that 
the last rafter was in place. "The work was finished at half past six 
o'clock, and then several tunes were played on the trombones and 



15 



trumpets from the top floor of the building to notify the congrega- 
tion of the successful accomplishment of the task." 

Then the roof was put on the rafters. It consisted of roofing laths 
placed at proper distances apart and roofing tiles, made by the 
potter Gottlob Krause, hung on the laths by means of knobs on the 
back of the tiles. Two-inch-wide wood shingles, "shakes," were 
slipped under the vertical joints between the tiles to prevent rain- 
ing in. The tiles were probably put on by Krause and his crew, 
although that is not certain. 

When the roof was finished, the laying of the attic floor and any 
work beneath could proceed under its shelter. 

The Wolffs were also to build and finish completely the belfry, or 
"steeple," except for its roof covering, and an outside balcony over 
the front door 10 — which balcony, however, was delayed a few 
years. The roof timbers were raised on September 17, as noted 
above, followed by putting on the roof-tile laths and building the 
steeple, which was "set" on the twenty-eighth, eleven days later. 
They therefore lathed the roof and built the steeple in nine or ten 
working days, if it can be assumed that work was not done on it 
while they were finishing the roof timbers. 

The windows, of which those on the front are still the original, 
were all "English sash," top and bottom sash, of which the bottom 
sash could be slid up in the channels to open for fresh air. They 
were fitted with small clear-glass panes. 

Originally the windows may have been bare, but in December of 
1802 muslin was bought for curtains. There is a mention in 1827 of 
washing the curtains. In 1854 Venetian blinds were installed. 

None of the present doors are the original, although the front 
door is a copy of the original which is presently in Old Salem 
storage. It is a two-leaf (bivalve) door with leaves of unequal width. 
Eighteen-century doors were made as small as possible to admit 
the least cold in winter or heat in summer. But the church door had 
to be wide enough to carry a coffin in and out. In such an opening 
door leaves of equal width would make an opening too narrow to be 
pratical without opening both leaves. Therefore one side was made 
wider than the other. The design is that of a double-panel door cut 
in two to one side of the center — a practical solution. The original 
outside door of the Sisters vestibule was made narrow because it 
was not planned to carry coffins through it. 

With doors and windows in place to prevent rain driving in, the 
floor could be put in. The stone masons had constructed four 



16 



foundation walls across the sanctuary north-south on which the 
ends of approximately 10" by 7" oak (probably also some pine) joists 
rested in east-west direction, and the floor boards on top of them in 
north-south position. To increase the warmth of the floor, it was 
proposed to have a fill of tanbark under the floor as insulation. The 
probable method was to have boards between the joists several 
inches below the floor boards and the space between filled with 
white-oak tanbark, similar to the method used in the Single Broth- 
ers House, where a mixture of clay and straw was used for sound 
insulation between floors. The Aufseher Collegium also proposed 
laying a double floor to prevent draft. The top layer of wide boards 
were then laid in an east-west direction, as an early photograph 
shows (Fig. 12). 

The locations for the stairs to the balcony and to the attic were 
tossed about a bit too, but the stairs wound up being where they are 
now, and not much different in construction. Figure 3 shows a 
stairs of 15 steps with 8" risers, but some changes were made in the 
building plans. The ceiling of the vestibule was raised about IV2' 
and the open ends of the two partition walls were placed, according 
to a later drawing, at the east end of the walls, as they are now, 
instead of at the west end. Raising the balcony-level floor leng- 
thened the stairs to eighteen steps and shortened the stairs to the 
attic. It now has twenty-four steps of slightly over 8" risers, which 
is probably much as it was before the 1912-1913 alterations. At 
the east end of the sanctuary was a stairs of eighteen steps to the 
ladies' balcony, as indicated in Figure 3. 

With the carpentry virtually completed, there was still a lot to be 
done on the outside and the inside of the church, which we have not 
yet mentioned. On the outside the highest priority was the cover- 
ing of the steeple roof. It was covered with the heaviest obtainable 
tin plate and painted with Brunswick green. The weather vane 
was put up Decemeber 5, 1799. The ball, which measures 6'6" in 
girth and 7 '5" vertical circumference and is said to have the capac- 
ity of 43 gallons, was made in Lititz, Pa., and covered with gold leaf 
and lacquered by Br. Benade in Nazareth, Pa. The weather vane, 
5' long and with a 13" wide tail bearing the date 1800, sits 92 feet 
above the sidewalk below it. The top was surmounted by what 
probably was originally a tulip but which the weather has changed 
to appear from one point of view a star, from another a butterfly. 

The belfry houses two bells. The large bell, weighing 275 
pounds, made in Bethlehem, Pa., in 1771 by the Danish bell caster, 



17 



Matthew Tommerup, hung in a tower near the northwest corner of 
the Gemein Haus in 1772 and was transferred to the belfry during 
the week of June 9, 1800, to strike the hours, as it did on the tower 
since 1772, and to be rung by hand on other occasions. The smaller 
bell was added in 1806. Both bells are associated with the town 
clock. 11 

The clock, ordered through the merchant firm of Abraham 
Durninger & Son of Herrnhut, Germany, was made in Gnadau and 
placed in the Salem tower near the Gemein Haus in 1791. In 1800 
Johann Ludwig Eberhardt, local clockmaker, moved it to the gable 
of the new church, at which time it had only the hour hand. The 
following year he made a larger dial for it, 84" in diameter, the 
copper for it donated by an anonymous member. Eberhardt also 
made new hands, adding the minute hand. These new copper 
hands were gilded. The clock struck the hour on the large bell 
which had been transferred from the tower near the Gemein Haus 
to the belfry. In 1806 he made the mechanism on the clock to strike 
the quarter hours on the smaller bell. The clock still needs to be 
wound every day as it did in 1800. It takes forty-nine turns of the 
crank to wind the time barrel and two hundred turns to wind the 
striking barrel. 

Copper roof gutters were made probably by Christoph Vogler, 
the gunsmith. The iron hand-rails of the front steps were made by 
the blacksmith, Samuel Schulz. These hand-rails show almost no 
rust since 1800. This is due to the purity of the iron, impurities and 
oxides, especially carbon-dioxide, having been largely burned and 
hammered out of the iron. This iron is sometimes called "Norwe- 
gian iron." 

The church was a rather plain but handsome building with good 
proportions and some refinements. The color suggested for the 
belfry and steeple was Naples yellow mixed with white lead, which 
would give a light yellow color, and with a green roof. And green 
was also suggested for the roof gutters. Light yellow would then 
also have been the probable color for doors and windows. In con- 
trast with the red brick the church was not drab but rather gay in 
appearance. 

The bricks down the front corners of the church and down the 
sides of the front windows and door were painted deep red. These 
bricks on buildings were sometimes rubbed before being applied to 
the building, usually by rubbing two bricks together until the 
molded outer surface was rubbed away and the bricks had a 



18 



smooth finish. This is slow and tedious work which there was 
hardly sufficient time in those busy years in Salem. It could be, 
therefore, that the paint was a substitute. This was not an after- 
thought, for it is recorded September 14, 1799: "The gable side of 
the church would gain much in beauty if the bricks would be 
painted with oil paint, the nearest color to the bricks; around the 
windows and on the sides a deep red color would show well. It 
would be best to paint the roof gutters green." 

Inside of the building a man named Clark plastered the walls. 
Hendricks and Leinbach painted the sanctuary walls with 
whitewash and may also have been the men who painted the trim 
and balconies with oil paints. The church was far from drab, as the 
Aufseher Collegium had decided at their meeting on October 25, 
1799: "The door and window frames of the new church, and also the 
galleries and doors, shall be painted light yellow, except that the 
cornices over the doors shall be white." The cornices would be the 
transom windows through which the light came. 

The church received daylight through its clear-glass windows. 
Artificial light was provided by five "Crown" chandeliers 4' wide 
made by Johann Ludwig Eberhardt for $6 apiece, and by wall 
sconces burning either beeswax or spermaceti candles, like the 
chandeliers, or possibly lard or fish-oil lamps. Four of the chande- 
liers now hanging in the church are the original ones, and two are 
copies made in 1960. A fifth original chandelier was reserved for 
the museum in Old Salem. Originally the chandeliers hung about 
seven or eight feet from the floor suspended by ropes with stone 
counter-weights in the attic, slightly heavier than the chandeliers, 
so that with a hooked staff they could be pulled down for lighting 
and changing candles. The wooden ball and iron arms were 
painted cobalt blue and the finials and saucers holding the candles 
a golden yellow. 

There was no heat in the church. People dressed accordingly and 
often brought charcoal foot warmers. 

Salem officials had talked with David Tannenberg of Lititz, Pa., 
about building a pipe organ for the new church. Tannenberg 
agreed to build it and sent his son-in-law, Johann Philip Bach- 
mann, to Salem to consult about the requirements for the organ. 
He arrived for this May 9, 1798. The wind chest and other parts of 
the organ made in Lititz arrived November 29, 1799, and Bach- 
mann with the help of Jacob Fetter, Salem cabinetmaker appren- 
tice, made the triple bellows and most of the organ case in Salem. 



19 



The organ (Fig. 16) comprised a Great organ and a Swell organ 
with louvered shutter-screen ("nagshead swell"), two manual key- 
board and pedals. It had fourteen ranks of pipes with another, an 
eight-foot Viola, added at some later date. Draw knobs were at the 
right and left of the keyboard. On the right were: Swell Solicet, 
Swell Open Diapason, Flauto Dolce, Swell Picolo, Swell Flauto 
Amabili, Swell Viola di Gamba, and Pedal Bourdon; and a Great to 
Pedal coupler. Possibly also a Swell to Pedal coupler which is now 
placed above the other draw knobs on the left. There is an empty 
draw-knob hole on the lower right. This could also have been the 
"signal" knob for signaling to the bellows treader. On the left were: 
Great Open Diapason, Great Gamba, Great Flauto, Great Fif- 
teenth, Great Stop Diapason, Pedal Violoncello, Great Principal, 
and the added Viola "8"; and the Swell to Pedal coupler mentioned 
above. 

The bellows (Fig. 19) for the wind supply were placed in the attic 
directly above the organ. They are still there. There were three 
bellows 50" wide and 102 W long, two side by side and the third one 
above them. There was no pressure chamber, the wind being kept 
at constant pressure by the "bellows boy" treading, or "riding 
down," one bellows after another in steady sequel. There is a 
tradition that originally the bellows boy was stationed in the 
attice, but soon the tread rack was placed on the balcony to the side 
of the organ so that the bellows boy would not be left out of the 
service. 

The organ played from November 9, 1800, when it was con- 
secrated together with the church, until 1912 or 1913 when a great 
alteration was made in the church. It was then stored with parts in 
several locations until in the 1950's the parts were collected into 
Old Salem's storage, where it has been cleaned, inventoried, and 
labeled, awaiting an opportunity for restoration. 

The pews, which were brought into the church November 8, the 
day before the consecration of the church ("there could be no 
evening service in the Saal"), were simple board benches with a 
board backrest near shoulder height. Some lacked the backrest, 
and these were placed at the back of the church to lure people to the 
front of the church. The benches were not fastened down, and 
enough space was left between them that men and women serving 
communion could get through. On the women's side (east side) 
especially, two benches were placed closer together and then a 
wider space was left. 



20 



The floor was plain, wide boards. For the November 9 consecra- 
tion: "It is to be expected that because of the crowd the floor will get 
dirty, so it shall not be scoured in advance but shall be swept clean 
and stewn with sand. It shall be scoured before our congregation 
festival." This took place on the following Sunday, November 13. 

Against the middle of the north wall was a low platform upon 
which were the minister's table and chair. The table was covered 
with green cloth; however, since the cloth had not arrived in time 
for the church consecration, the raw top of the table was covered 
with a white cloth for the day. Over the chair was a solid, curved 
canopy extending 3' from the wall and supported by two 1" sup- 
ports attached to the wainscoting. This was to project the speaker's 
voice. 

Although the floor and pews were unpainted and the walls plain, 
the white walls and light yellow woodwork of the doors, windows, 
balconies, and wainscoting must have given the church a bright 
and friendly atmosphere. Decorative refinements were added by 
the organ, the chandeliers, and by the moldings of the woodwork, 
perhaps enhanced by Spanish brown or other color on the balcony 
and wainscoting edges. 

Two boxes were installed, one by each door, to receive contribu- 
tions. 

Then came the day for the dedication, or consecration (both 
words were used), of the church, Wednesday, November 9, 1800. 
Much time and thought had been given in the preparation of it, for 
they expected a large crowd to be present. In fact, they wanted a 
large attendance. Br. Marshall even drew up an advertisement for 
it; and they frankly "asked for assistance in covering the cost of the 
building," which was considerable. 12 Musicians were rehearsed; 
also dieners, ushers and others who were to take part in the 
service. "In the middle aisle the Brn. Landmann and Christmann 
shall see to the seating of the people; at the men's door the Brn. 
Clauder and Becker shall show people their places. At the outside 
entrance for the women the Brn. Christoph Reich and Christoph 
Vogler shall be stationed to preserve order [?!]; inside the Saal the 
Srs. Wholfahrt, Hannel Krause, Sarah Buttner, and Mary Ann 
Peddycoart shall serve." 

The benches, buns and beer and the articles needed for the 
lovefeast were taken to the church the preceding day. Br. Schober 
lent the necessary tin cups. 

By nine o'clock on the morning of November 9 a large crowd had 



21 



gathered on the square, the men near the boys school and the 
women near the Gemein Haus, one group of trombonists between 
them and another group inside the church on the balcony level by 
the open window above the front door. 

When the clock struck nine, the Brothers of the Elders Con- 
ference together with the invited ministers came out of the Gemein 
Haus and proceeded to the church. Then the musicians outside 
struck up the first line of the hymn: "Bless, O God, our going out," 
and as they entered the church the musicians in the church played 
the second line: "on our entering lay Thy Blessing." Then the 
chorus sang with instrumental accompaniment: "This is the day 
which the Lord hath made." Other tunes followed until all those 
who could get into the church were seated. Then after a litany, Br. 
Benzien preached in English, or rather spoke about the church: its 
planning and building, its being constructed without any one 
being injured, and its purpose. After that followed singing and 
prayer. 

This was followed by a service in German led by Br. Simon Peter, 
minister of Bethania and another service in English led by Br. 
Kramsch of Hope. At the end of each of these services collections 
were taken toward the expense of building the church. 

"In the afternoon there was a lovefeast for everybody. Beer and 
buns were served, and the buns, of which one thousand had been 
baked, must be cut in half to serve all those present." It was 
estimated there were about two thousand people present. 

At eight o'clock in the evening the congregation closed the festal 
day by singing liturgy No. 3. 13 

Another consecration festival was held Sunday, November 13, to 
which all the neighboring congregations had been invited. Com- 
munion was held at this service. 

Easter morning, April 5, 1801, the first Easter service was held 
in the new church. Although it had rained continuously the pre- 
vious day and was still raining some, so many visitors came that 
"the roomy Saal could barely hold them all." And "because of the 
heavy rain the visitors asked for lodging and one could not refuse 
them." At half past five in the morning the Easter litany was 
prayed in the church, and at nine o'clock Br. Benzien preached in 
English. 14 

Most of the regular services this first winter were held in the old 
Gemein Saal, not in the church which had no heat. But because of 
mild weather, Sunday and week-day services seem to have been 



22 



held in the church from about mid-February on. While the old Saal 
continued to be much in use, so was the new church. 

The church attic was also an ideal place for the women to dry 
their laundry, until in 1812 the Aufseher Collegium stopped that 
because of the harmful moisture it created. 

There still were problems with the new church. In April, 1801, 
the new organ was already badly in need of tuning. This could be 
expected with a new organ in a cold, new church over winter. But, 
worse, the church's roof tiles had been too softly fired so that repair 
was constantly needed, which was dangerous on account of the 
height of the building. It was therefore decided in 1802 to remove 
them and cover the roof with yellow poplar wood shingles painted 
red. John Adam Wolff was at once considered for the job. The work 
was begun late in May, 1803, and completed in July, after which 
the interior of the church was cleaned and repainted. This was 
done by a professional painter from Alsace who whitewashed the 
sanctuary walls and painted the woodwork "with an experimental 
color. . .The auditorium presents an uncommonly pleasing 
appearance." We are left in the dark as to what the color was, 

The roof continued to give trouble. It was repaired in 1824 and 
soon was in need of more repair. Apparently the poplar shingles 
were not holding up, so they proposed using pine or cedar, asking 
for prices on cedar in January. Then, finally, on September 15, 
1830, they began re-roofing the church, but apparently not with 
cedar shingles. The roof was again repaired in April, 1842, when 
the Collegium remarked that it was in worse condition than they 
thought; and in 1868 it was again re-shingled. In 1903 the wood 
shingled roof was replaced by a slate roof. And finally in 1966 the 
slate roof, which had been giving trouble, was replaced under Old 
Salem's recommendation with a synthetic shingle in imitation of 
red-painted wood shingles, toward which Old Salem, Inc., donated 
$20,000. 

The roof boards, though, which replaced the roof laths when 
wooden shingles were first put on, were never replaced. Those 
boards now on the roof have projecting from them the tips of 
wrought nails, cut nails, and wire nails, covering a span of nearly 
two centuries time. 

Although the contract with Adam Wolff and partners in July of 
1799 pertaining to the carpentry work on the church called for 
them to "frame and finsih entirely an outside gallery .... ," 10 that 
part had been curtailed, presumably by mutual agreement. Now in 



23 



March of 1804 the Aufseher Collegium proposed to construct it. 
The balcony was built and the gable window behind it replaced by 
a door. As early as 181 1 the balcony had to be repaired, and in 1836 
it was removed because of the uncertainty of the soundness of the 
lower beams that supported it, and to repair it would be too costly. 
The door was then replaced by a window. The balcony was once 
more rebuilt in 1966 under supervision of Old Salem, Inc., and the 
window again replaced by a door. That is how it is now and will be 
for a long time to come because those beams are now steel beams. 

Painting and repairs go on all the time. For instance, the steeple 
roof was re-painted in 1812 and 1824, when it was painted black, 
and so on through the centuries. The belfry was repainted in 1817, 
1824 (white), 1841, and on. The ball on the weather vane was 
regilded in 1824 and, with times in between, lastly in 1982. 

In planning the two balconies inside the church, the visibility 
had not been worked out very well, so that in December of 1814 it 
was suggested to raise the floor of the musicians' gallery so that the 
musicians could see the minister even when seated. And in Decem- 
ber of 1822 it was again proposed, not for the first time, that the 
benches in the Sisters gallery be raised so that those sitting there 
can better see the minister. This apparently was not done, and it is 
not certain that the musicians' floor had been raised at that time. It 
was at some time later. 

The minister's table and chair were on a low platform on the 
ends of which the church officials had their seats. In 1823 a request 
was made to remove the ends to gain more floor space. This was not 
done. Bishop Benade (minister from 1822 to 1829), who was a 
rather short man, had the dais raised to three steps so that he could 
be more easily seen by all the congregation. After Bishop Van 
Vleck became the minister (1836-1849), he proposed installing a 
high pulpit. Jacob Siewers made that pulpit in 1837 for which he 
was paid $50 in April of 1838. The pulpit was rather tall, its floor 
being 7' W above the floor of the church. A flight of staifs led up to 
it from each side. It had a 3' high panel on the front with a Bible 
stand at the top. The pulpit was built that tall so that those sitting 
in the balconies could readily see the minister. The minister's table 
stood in front of the pulpit on a dais of two eight-inch high steps. It 
was quite in contrast to earlier days when the minister preached 
from a sitting position at a table on a low platform. The congrega- 
tion was not entirely happy with the new high pulpit, not because 
of the change in concept by placing the minister so high above the 



24 



congregation, but because of the crick-in-the-neck they got from 
looking at the minister at such a high angle. In 1839 the pulpit was 
lowered approximately 2V2' (Fig. 13). 

In 1840 a decision was made to turn the old Gemein Haus over to 
the girls boarding school and build a new minister's house (the 
minister had been living in the old Gemein Haus up to this time) 
with a conference room, some archives rooms, and a new "little 
Saal" in the same building. This was to be located against the 
north side of the church where the corpse house had been since 
1803, when it was moved up the street against the north side of the 
church from in front of the Single Sisters house. This small corpse 
house is where the bodies of those who died were kept until their 
funerals. All this was accomplished in 1841. A door was cut 
through the north wall of the church vestibule, in the so-called 
"cabinet" (at that time there was no stairs in that room, as there is 
now), which apparently was the archives room, where also the 
communion acoutrements were kept. The minister could enter the 
church from his home through this door. It was a one-story build- 
ing, lengthwise north and south, with a Saal 30' by 38' next to the 
church, with the organ on the west side and the table on the east, 
and the minister's dwelling on the north end of the building 
(Fig. 14). The cornerstone was set July 21, 1841, and the Saal was 
in use by December 9. It was dedicated on December 12. Br. and Sr. 
Van Vleck moved into their apartment December 8. In November 
the Tannenberg organ (which is now in the Single Brothers Saal) 
had been transferred from the old little Saal to the new little Saal. 

Placing the chapel complex at the northwest corner of the church 
necessitated building a new corpse house. In 1803 a corpse house 
was built at the northwest corner of the church to replace the one 
midway along the east side of the square. This new corpse house 
was built against the church a few steps into the ground between 
and under the church windows to the east of the new chapel (Fig. 
11). 

Originally the church had no heating facilities of any kjnd, and 
consequently church services in the cold winter were held in the 
little Saal in the old Gemein Haus, or occasionally suspended. It 
was not unusual to cancel a church service because of ice or bad 
weather. But in the 1830's the Aufseher Collegium began con- 
sidering means of heating the church. In 1832 a proposal to set up 
two stoves in the church was considered, even considering whether 
one stove might do. But in January the proposal was voted down. 



25 



The subject was brought forth again in July of 1837, and again was 
not approved. 

The Aufseher Collegium records of January 30, 1854, note: "At 
this time too the Collegium took up the wish which has been 
expressed repeatedly by various members of the congregation that 
provisions should be made for heating the church. However, since 
these matters are properly a matter for the Congregation Council 
to decide, these considerations should be presented to it." 

On February 6 the Council approved the proposal and asked the 
Collegium to prepare a cost estimate and circulate a subscription 
list throughout the town toward the expense. The estimate was 
"about $440." Before the end of April $455.45 had been subscribed 
locally. 

For some reason, however, the furnace was not installed that 
fall. There may have been some opposition to the idea, or because of 
the cost and work involved, though this seems hardly to be it, 
considering the over-subscription in so short a time. It is also 
possible that the equipment was not received in time. So they 
followed the old suggestion of about twenty years before and set up 
two wood-burning stoves in the church. But by February of the 
same winter they concluded that two stoves were not sufficient, 
and by fall of 1855 a furnace had been installed under the sanctu- 
ary floor. 

The furnace would have been a rather simple but fairly large 
wood-burning stove, which was installed under the center of the 
sanctuary with a grate of some fashion in the floor in the middle 
aisle to permit the heat to rise into the church. A corner of the grate 
can be seen at the bottom edge of Figure 12. The furnace seems to 
have been quite successful, for on December 16 the Salem Diary 
records: "The new furnace in the Saal is doing very good service." 

Getting the furnace into position, however, entailed a lot of 
preliminary work and considerable excavating of ground (Fig. 10). 
The land sloped to the east enough that the stone foundation had to 
be built at least seven feet high at the east end, but near the middle 
of the sanctuary, forty feet from the eastern end, the ground sur- 
face was within a few feet of the floor joists. Apparently the west 
wall of the lovefeast kitchen was breached at its northern end, 
which is in line with the center of the sanctuary, and a corridor 
excavated to that center, where a room was excavated just beyond 
the second cross foundation (Figs. 9 & 10). The stone at that place 
was removed and the corridor and room walls approximately 13" 



26 



thick built of brick, the eastern wall of the room supporting the 
church floor in place of the removed stone foundation. Because of 
this support, the room is not precisely under the center of the 
sanctuary. The room is approximately 9' wide and 24' in length 
north-south, with a 7' high ceiling. The floor may have been earth 
as in the storage vault, or it may possibly have been the present 
cement floor. Presumably the furnace was less than 47" wide and 
was brought in through the kitchen and the corridor. Wood for fuel 
stored in the vault at the north end of the kitchen was carried in 
through the corridor, through which a long length of stovepipe 
carried the smoke to the chimney above the kitchen fireplace. At 
the south end of the furnace room, near the ceiling, a rectangular 
hole perhaps 1' in height and IV2' in length was left in the brick 
wall presumably as an air vent to the furnace. Thus air from 
presumed apertures in the sanctuary walls or floor and also from 
outside vents in the foundation could find its way under the floor to 
the furnace room. 

In. 1870 when a major change was made in the sanctuary, which 
included new pews and their positioning with two aisles length- 
wise of the room (Figs. 17, 18), a different arrangement had also to 
be made in the heating system. With the pulpit at the east end of 
the church and a U-shaped balcony around the other three sides 
supported by eight cast-iron columns (which are now supporting 
the present balcony) standing at the outer sides of the aisles, a 
grate was placed at the foot of each column. If this was a hot-air 
furnace, it required air ducts under the floor from the furnace to 
the vents, or grates, and also a vent of some kind for the return of 
the air. Just how this would have worked is not known today, and it 
is practically impossible to decipher because of subsequent altera- 
tions. Without fans to drive the air, the movement of air would 
have to have been by natural convection, warm air tending to rise 
and cold air to sink. There was no source of electricity in Salem in 
1870 to drive electric fans. 

It is more probable, however, that at this time a steam boiler was 
installed and the steam piped to radiators under each grate. This 
would supply a more even heat throughout the building than long 
air ducts with several vents in the course of their lengths when the 
air had to find its own way along without the aid of a fan. Though 
Salem was in the forefront in accepting new ideas, building electric 
streetcar lines in 1889 when trams were first introduced in Europe 
in 1882, it is not certain that they had electric forced-air furnaces 



27 



in 1870. In the 1870 furnace as well as the 1855 one the smoke 
would have been conducted through a pipe to the chimney above 
the fireplace. 

In 1854 a lighting change was made in connection with a change 
in the balconies. More space was needed especially for the school 
girls, and at their January 30 meeting the Collegium proposed 
adding a third balcony in the place of the 5' wide walk along the 
south wall between the two end balconies. This balcony, it was 
proposed, would communicate by means of an overhead passage 
with the second floor of the proposed new girls boarding school. At 
the April, 1854, meeting they had rejected a proposal to remove the 
eastern balcony, place the pulpit at that end, and construct two 
balconies on the north and south sides. The south balcony as first 
planned was built, but the passage was not. 

We have mentioned the five chandeliers made by Eberhardt in 
1800, which are now again displayed in the church. They burned 
candles, probably beeswax and also spermaceti candles, which are 
mentioned by the Aufseher Collegium on March 29, 1841, when 
they considered as an alternative accepting an offer of a donation 
of lamps. What the fuel for the lamps might be was not stated. It 
couild have been fish oil or "lighting fluid" (mixture of alcohol and 
turpentine), but also grease, for in 1868 a suggestion was made to 
lend to the Kernersville church the "old lard lamps formerly in the 
church." These old lamps, which Kernersville probably accepted 
since they are not around here now, were no longer in use in the 
1860's, for by the change made in the church new lights were 
installed. 

A new chandelier with six arms carrying lamps for the center of 
the church was ordered and twelve lamps to be attached to the 
columns supporting the balconies and on the balcony walls. The 
Salem Diarist on November 19, 1854, could write: "Our Saal hav- 
ing been painted and fitted out with Venetian blinds and a now 
chandelier and lamps and a fine pulpit chair placed on a woolen 
rug, we are able to meet joyfully and gratefully in it again for the 
first time today ..." In 1870 this chandelier was given to Be- 
thania, when again new lights were procured. 

The 1854 bracket lamps burning oil of some kind were not in use 
long, for in 1860 gas lights were installed. These were two-light 
brackets of cast metal in elaborate floral and decorative design. 
The gas used in these lamps was coal gas, which began to be used in 
Salem in the 1850's. Coal gas for lighting was invented in the late 



28 



eighteenth century and spread rapidly in the United States in the 
nineteenth. In mid-nineteenth century Salem built a gas works by 
the creek near the cotton mill, making gas from coal. From this the 
creek got to be called "Tar Branch." 

The windows were hung with cloth curtains until 1854 when the 
curtains were replaced with Venetian blinds. (Figure 12 shows 
them and Figure 13 shows the blinds on the north windows drawn 
up). But in 1870 blinds were requested on the north windows to cut 
down the glare at the pulpit for the congregation. Perhaps they 
still had the blinds but had not been using them; that is, they left 
them drawn up. 

The changes made in the church in 1870 and shortly after were 
quite drastic. The proposal made in 1854 to place the pulpit at the 
east end of the church was now carried out, removing the east 
balcony and adding north and south balconies to gain more seating 
space. New pews were put in, a new pulpit and a new table and 
chancel chairs were procured — all in the most acceptable Victo- 
rian style. The walls of the church and the pipes of the organ were 
beautifully stencilled with conventional floral decoration (Figs. 
16, 17, 18). This stencilling took place probably some time after 
1870, since an old photograph which shows the north balcony 
shows the organ and walls plain. 

At a later date, perhaps about 1900, a press-molded sheet-metal 
ceiling and coved-corners covered the wall stencilling (cf. Figs. 16 
and 18). This was probably done to cover up a much-cracked ceil- 
ing. 

The old gas lights were also used for a short time before new light 
fixtures of tube-brass design were substituted, lamps less florid 
but more classical, fitting well with the stencilled walls. There was 
no central chandelier, but paired bracket lights were spaced along 
the lower edge of the balcony parapet and standing lights on top of 
it. And, as before, bracket lights on the organ. The standing lights 
were later removed. 

The old lovefeast kitchen in the basement was abandoned and a 
new three-story kitchen and service area annexed to the east end of 
the church with the two east windows converted to doors from the 
two new balconies. The west windows on the front of the church 
were left as they were, but the north and south windows were 
lengthened by removing bricks from beneath the windows and 
lowering the stone sills nearly two and a half feet. Stained-glass 



29 



windows with top and bottom sash were then installed. Stained 
glass also was used in transom and other small windows. 

These major 1870 changes were due largely to the women, who 
pushed the project and helped with the fund raising. The cost of all 
this modernizing alteration was $5,833.97, of which $3,131.55 
came from contributions. 

The church was opened for worship the day before Christmas in 
1870 when the Rev. Albert L. Oerter was the pastor (1870-1877). 

While the changes made in the church in the 1870's were quite 
drastic, those made in 1912-1913 were even more extreme, since 
they involved a change in the structure of the building. 

No doubt there had been earlier discussions about expansions, 
but the project really took off at a meeting on February 26, 1912, 
when it was resolved to construct a Sunday School building. At 
that same meeting Mrs. Hanna Siewers announced she was giving 
a gift of a pipe organ, since the old Tannenberg organ was in nearly 
unplayable condition. The organ was ordered from the Kimball 
Organ Company of Chicago on April 20. 

During those two months much progress was being made with 
the preliminaries. The Board of Trustees selected W. C. Northup as 
the architect. The building was named the Rondthaler Memorial 
Building in honor of Bishop Edward E. Rondthaler, who had been 
pastor of Home Church from 1877 till 1908. After that he was titled 
pastor of Salem Congregation, which encompassed the Moravian 
Churches in Winston-Salem. He died in 1931. 

The old 1841 building which had contained the "little Saal" 
(called the Chapel after the 1850's), the archives rooms, and the 
minister's apartment, and also the corpse house behind it were 
removed and the ground cleared for the new building. The minis- 
ter's quarters and the archives rooms had been removed from the 
building by that time. A contract had been signed with Fogle 
Brothers to do the constructing of the Rondthaler Memorial Sun- 
day School building. Excavation of the basement was begun June 
8. And on September 18, when the foundation was virtually com- 
plete, the laying of brick on the walls was begun. The cornerstone 
was laid October 20, a month after the foundation was finished — 
quite different from the way it was done when the church was built 
in 1800 or the Single Brothers House in 1769. Also in October a 
deal was being worked out with Salem Academy and College for 
the church complex to get its heat from the college, which was 
building a new central heating system. 



30 



In the meantime, work was going ahead on the building, and on 
December 9, 1912, the slate was being put on the roof. By January 
15, 1913, the building was being wired for electric lights and was in 
process of being lathed for plastering. And on May 27 Mr. Baker, 
the foreman, fell from a high scaffold and broke his right leg. But 
the work progressed at a fair pace and on June 15 the opening was 
celebrated with some ceremony. 

While the work was going on in the Rondthaler Memorial Sun- 
day School building, work was also going on in the church to which 
the Sunday School building was to be connected. All the pews and 
other furniture were removed. The Tannenberg organ was re- 
moved, which had poured out its tones from the west balcony from 
November 9, 1800, till June 8, 1913. On June 15 the new au- 
ditorium in the Rondthaler building was usable for church ser- 
vices, and services were held there. The old organ was then stored, 
some parts in the attic of the church, the console in the Wachovia 
Museum (the old boys school), and the pipes in the attic of the new 
boys school (later the Provincial Church office) at the corner of 
Bank and Church Streets. The parts have later been gathered and 
are now stored in Old Salem's storage, safe, cleaned and all parts 
labeled. The balconies were removed and also the 1870 stained- 
glass windows. 

But the major removal was 41 feet of the 2V2-foot thick brick 
north wall of the church. This included all four north windows. The 
new windows were then cut through the wall, one on each side of 
the opening. By placing the chancel through this wall opening, the 
church was thus enlarged to add more floor space for seating the 
congregation. The chancel comprised a low platform at the front 
with two lecterns, one of which contained, under its removable top, 
a bowl and pitcher for baptisms. The back part of the platform was 
raised to a three-step high dais which held the pulpit. Behind this 
was the choir loft, which also contained the organ console in the 
east end. And behind the choir loft the new Kimball organ was 
encased in a room with the front open but screened by a row of 
organ show pipes (false pipes that do not play). 

A massive steel summer-beam over the 41 ' opening supports the 
church ceiling-joists and the roof rafters that had been resting on 
the brick wall. Steel structure also supports the ceiling over the 
chancel and the organ loft. 

Other basic alterations in the church included installation of a 
large curved balcony around the west, south, and east sides sup- 



31 



ported on the front by the cast-iron columns that had supported the 
1870 balconies. Being a bit too long for the balcony's height above 
the church floor, they were therefore set on pier foundations below 
the floor level, projecting through the floor. They have the advan- 
tage of being small in diameter. The pre-1870 square columns took 
up about a foot of space, considerably obstructing the view. The 
sanctuary originally had three doors leading from the west vesti- 
bule (Fig. 12). In 1870 the three doors were retained (Fig. 18), but 
in 1913 all but the center doorway were closed. The door that led 
into the 1841 chapel from the vestibule was made into an outside 
door with a hood over it similar to that over the front door. The 
south stairway was rebuilt in the same location and another stairs 
was installed in the northern room of the vestibule, leading to the 
balcony level. The lower part of the attic stairs was also rebuilt 
nearly as it had been in 1800, only changing the woodwork to 
conform to the 1913 style. 

Curved pews were ordered to conform with the balcony. The 
contract was given to the American Seating Company on August 
30, 1912. 

On December 5 the contract for decorating and lighting the 
church was given to J. & R. Lamb of New York, America's leading 
church decorators. 

The emphasis on the whole construction project seems to have 
been on "modern style" and "beauty," those words being used much 
and often in describing various aspects of the buildings, both the 
church and its Sunday School adjunct — the church especially. 

In the century since, our notions of modern style and beauty 
have changed materially, but we would still say the decoration was 
impressive. The overall effect was decorative from "dark fumed 
wainscoating to delicate cream ceiling." The walls, "cove and ceil- 
ing embody designs beautifully stencilled and chaste in appear- 
ance," to quote the Home Church Diary of 1913. The carpet and 
choir rail curtain were dark green. The vestibule floors were mosa- 
ic tile, on which stood burnished brass umbrella stands. The whole 
effect was the dark, loaded, and rich of the post-Victorian age. 

The mosaic on the vestibule floors is still there and in excellent 
condition, but the dark green rug has been replaced several 
times — with red, and the present one blue. Likewise the bur- 
nished brass umbrella stands have been replaced with less con- 
spicuous wooden ones. The stencilling on the ceiling and walls has 
been covered up. And as late as 1960 the wainscoting was painted 



32 



over with an off-white color together with the wall and ceiling 
above, as also all the other woodwork except the pews. 

But one element of the decor is timeless: that is the windows. The 
windows, at least the feature pictures of them, were made in 
Germany. The tops, the bottoms, the various transom windows, 
and the small windows of the south vestibule were ordered to 
harmonize with the picture windows, but are of a different tech- 
nique. 

Around the turn of the twentieth century there were several, 
rather small, manufacturies in Germany using the same style and 
techniques in painting church windows. As World War I was 
brewing, demand for these rather expensive windows declined, 
and Germany concentrated its efforts on military preparation. 
After the war when conditions came back towards normal and 
there was again call for church windows, the old men who held the 
secret of the technique had died, it is said, and with it the secret, 
which was thus lost. 

The scenes depicted are copies of famous paintings, mostly dat- 
ing around the Renaissance period. They were selected to tell the 
main events in the life of Chirst and placed chronologically clock- 
wise around the sanctuary, beginning at the southwest of the 
chancel with the scene of the nativity; then the flight to Egypt; 
Jesus at the age of twelve in the temple with the learned men; 
Jesus as an adult blessing children. The two north windows of the 
sanctuary are not in historical sequence, but they are famous 
Christian paintings: the northeast window, Christ knocking on 
the door, and the northwest, the good shepherd. On the south wall 
the sequence continues with the final scenes in the Christ history: 
Jesus praying in the garden of Gethsemane; the Crucifixion; the 
Resurrection; and the Ascension at the southwest end. 

Each window is a memorial to a person who made a great 
contribution to the development of the Moravian Church, 
culminating in Home Church as of the date of its rededication on 
November 30, 1913. The four windows in the chancel have the 
dedication worked in the lower glass and the others have bronze 
plaques below the windows. The first window is dedicated to John 
Hus (1369-1415) of Prague, Bohemia, whose principles were fol- 
lowed by the founders of the Unitas Fratrum in 1457, the founding 
of the church we here call the Moravian Church. 

As with the dedication of the church in 1800 a new organ was 
dedicated with it, so in the rededication, or re-opening, in 1913 a 



33 



new organ was dedicated with it. This was the Kimball organ 
donated by Mrs. Hanna Siewers and her daughter, Gertrude. The 
console was at the east end of the choir loft facing the choir so that 
the organist could also direct the choir. In later years it was moved 
to the center of the choir loft and sunk into a pit. 

The lighting system in the church this time was with electric 
lights. Six large bronzed inverted-light chandeliers were sus- 
pended from the ceiling, each with eight 100-watt bulbs, and 
others of similar design but smaller were suspended under the 
balcony. 

A vacuum cleaning system was also installed to clean the 
church. And the lovefeast kitchen of 1870 was brought up-to-date 
with a gas range, a Ruud water heater, coffee percolators, and 
other modern conveniences of 1913. 

The new heating system was a Hylo-vacuum system with steam 
supplied by Salem College. Steam was brought in through a 10" 
pipe under the center of the church where it passed through a 
radiator of some kind. Then a strong current of air, warmed by the 
radiator, was distributed and emerged through grates variously 
placed in the walls around the church. The force which moved the 
air was a large fan driven by a 5-horse-power G. E. electric motor 
patented in 1901, which still rests on its truncated-pyramid con- 
crete base in the corridor leading from the furnace room to the old 
lovefeast kitchen. 

In summer time this forced movement of air, unheated, also 
made the church seem cooler. At one period of time, probably not 
long after 1913, this system was rigged up so that the blast of air 
was passed over blocks of ice, which actually did lower the tem- 
perature, also adding a bit of moisture from the evaporating ice. 
The ice was brought in through a doorway cut through the stone 
foundation 45" to the east of the south vestibule (Fig. 10). 

Sunday, November 30, 1913, was the day for the re-opening of 
the church for services. The celebration began with a service at 11 
o'clock at which Bishop Edward Rondthaler preached the sermon. 
H. A. Shirley, dean of the Salem College music department, was 
the organist on the new organ. At 3 o'clock in the afternoon there 
was a lovefeast for all members of Salem Congregation followed by 
communion at which Bishop Rondthaler and his son, the Rev. 
Howard E. Rondthaler, and the Rev. J. K. Pfohl, the pastor of 
Home Church, served. At 7:30 in the evening the day ended with a 
song service in the church. 



34 



The offering for the day was about $700. The church was thus 
almost paid for. "A Brother" offered to pay half of the remaining 
debt, if the trustees assumed the other half. So the "entire amount 
was provided for," wrote the church diarist. 

The total cost of the improvements, with interest, amounted to 
$96,091.92. 

But somehow the Rondthaler Memorial Building was not con- 
secrated until March 9, 1919, at which occasion the Rev. J. Ken- 
neth Pfohl, the pastor, read a paper presenting the building as a 
memorial to Bishop Edward E. Rondthaler. 

In 1928 the church sanctuary was again in "torn up condition" 
for a whole month while it was undergoing "new decorations." And 
during this period church services were again held in the au- 
ditorium in the Rondthaler Memorial Sunday School building. 
After the re-opening of the church for services on August 19, the 
church diarist wrote: "The [church] auditorium is very much 
brighter." 

The next dedication was held on Saturday, April 19, 1930, when 
the carillon chimes donated in honor of Thomas Shirley Fleshman 
by his wife, Mini Pepper Fleshman, and their daughter, Geraldine 
Fleshman Graham, were dedicated. 

A carillon tower was built for the chimes on the roof at the south 
end of the Rondthaler Memorial building. The carillon is a tube set 
of Deagan tower chimes, which can be played by levers at the 
chime tower or at the Aeolian-Skinner organ console presently in 
the church. 

Ninteen hundred and forty-one was another big year of expan- 
sion and improvement at the church. A five-story Christian Educa- 
tion building was erected on the steep hillside to the north of the 
Rondthaler Memorial building and connected to it by enclosed 
overhead corridors on two levels. The building was planned in 
1940 by Northup and O'Brian, architects. Harry E. Tralle was the 
consultant. And the Rev. R. Gordon Spaugh was the pastor. 

The sub-basement story, about half of which space was ex- 
cavated and utilized, contained the heating plant with its coal 
storage room, which henceforth provided heat for the whole church 
complex, and a Boy Scout quarters 36' by 47'. The Girl Scouts were 
given a larger room on the top floor, 44' by 73'. 

The "Ground floor" above the "Sub-basement" was "Fellowship 
hall", which with its large kitchen and stage occupied the whole 
space. The auditorium up to the stage measured 47' by 75'. 



35 



The "First floor" was at street level on its front (west) facade. It 
comprised seven large Sunday School class rooms and was con- 
nected by a corridor to the Rondthaler Memorial building, which 
contained more Sunday School rooms. 

The "Second floor" was similar to the First except that it and the 
class rooms on the same level of the Rondthaler Memorial building 
were smaller and more numerous. 

The Rondthaler building was also somewhat modified, mainly in 
that the auditorium was changed to a chapel and some space 
utilized for offices and corridors. This was made feasible by the 
removal of some Sunday School rooms into the new building. 

At the same time the church was also redecorated, which seems 
to have consisted mainly of a freshening-up, repainting the ceiling 
and walls above the wainscot. 

The Christian Education building of 1941 was the last major 
construction expansion; but of course there is always the work of 
repairing, refurbishing, and modernizing as new and improved 
devices are invented. 

One such event which erased the last vestiges of the Victorian 
age in the church occurred in 1959-1960 when the interior of the 
church was repainted. All the oak woodwork except the pews was 
painted an off-white, which brightened the church away from the 
rich, massed, and dark feeling of the Victorian. 

Some physical changes were also made in the church complex: 
some mechanical improvements in the heating system which do 
not show on the surface; the installation of modern air con- 
ditioning; also not seen but felt; and lighting. 

The church was rewired and lights installed consisting of lamps 
in the sanctuary ceiling and an inverted strip-light surrounding 
the sanctuary in an enlarged molding at the base of the ceiling 
cove. And, as a decoration the old chandeliers made by Eberhardt 
in 1800 were suspended about six feet from the ceiling. As stated 
before, four of the five were hung here reserving one for the 
museum in Old Salem and making two copies for a total of six. 
They were wired for 110-volt current to candelabra-base bulbs, 
always wiring two lights in series to cut the current in half so that 
they give a more reddish light to match the light of beeswax 
candles. An added advantage is that the bulbs seldom burn out. To 
the date of this writing only one bulb had given out since 1960. 

With a pulpit at the north side of the auditorium, acoustics are 
good except for the interference of the balcony which made hearing 



36 



difficult under the back corners. The difficulty was overcome by 
the installation of an electric public address system with speakers 
under the balcony at the back of each column. 

At this time also the Kimball organ of 1913 was replaced by a 
larger and more versatile organ. It is a three-manual instrument 
built by the Aeolian-Skinner Organ Company of South Boston, 
Massachusetts. There are 44 stops and 39 ranks, with a total of 
2,382 pipes. 

The organ being larger than the Kimball organ, it was necessary 
to widen the organ chamber. The back of the chancel, which was 
even with the front of the organ chamber, had two doors on each 
side of the organ chamber, the inner doors leading to the choir loft, 
and the outer to the church auditorium. Now the walls of the organ 
chamber hit the backs of the inner doors at their middles rendering 
them permanently shut. Entrance to the choir loft was then gained 
through the outer doors and openings at the sides of the choir 
parapet. 

From 1960 to the time of this writing changes in the church have 
been minimal, consisting mainly in shifts in the use of spaces. The 
major one occurred in 1982 when the ministers' offices were moved 
from the Christian Education Building to the Rondthaler Memo- 
rial Building to diminish the cost of heating and cooling. 

Home Church had changed during the span of nearly two centu- 
ries as demands and conditions changed. The establishment grew 
in size and complexity as its membership grew and its religious 
and social requirements increased. As aesthetic styles changed the 
sanctuary changed in appearance so much that it is questionable 
whether those who dedicated it in 1800 would readily recognize 
their church. No doubt they would approve the change. The outside 
would be familiar to them, for it appears much as it did in their day 
except for the stained-glass windows on the south and north sides. 



37 



Tootnotcs 



1. Adelaide L. Fries, The Records of the Moravians in North Carolina, 
Vol. I, pp. 295, 298. Hereinafter, to avoid unnecessary cumbrance, 
reference to these Records will not be given unless it is of special note. 
Anyone interested can easily find the reference through the indexes 
in the volumes. 

2. Christian Gottlieb Reuter (1717-1777), son of a surgeon, became a 
Royal surveyor in the service of Frederick II ("The Great"), King of 
Prussia. He became associated with the Moravians in 1744, came to 
Pennsylvania in 1756, and to Wachovia in 1758. He made many maps 
of the Wachovia land, towns, etc., and also filled important offices in 
Bethabara and Salem. He married in 1762 and died December 30, 
1777. 

3. The lot: The Brethren of this period believed most firmly that the Lord 
was willing openly to direct them even in temporal affairs. When 
their own best judgment has been exercised the final decision was 
submitted to Him through the "lot." The material elements of the lot 
are a wooden bowl and three small capsules containing papers, one 
with "Ya" printed on it, another with "Nein," and a third blank, which 
means consider it further. One was drawn and its answer adhered to. 

4. Frederick William Marshall was the Oeconomus, the man in overall 
charge of the Wachovia settlement. 

5. Marshall drew these plans (Figs. 1, 2) before the large Tannenberg 
organ was ordered and before the 1797 organ arrived. From the size 5' 
by 8' on the plan he obviously thought of using the 1797 organ in the 
church. 

6. Ministers Committee for general oversight of all Wachovia. 

7. The lovefeast is the Agape of the earliest Christians and of the Jews 
before them. It was a meal eaten together in love for each other and for 
the religious institution to which they adhered. Jesus and his twelve 
disciples ate their Agape meal in an upstairs room on the eve before 
the Passover. At this meal Jesus introduced the bread and wine as 
elements to be taken in memory of him. This was taken over by the 
early Christians, who, during the first centuries had their Eucharist 
(Lord's Supper) with the lovefeast. 

8. Records, Vol. 11, p. 5936. 

9. cf. Records, Vol. 8, pp. 3645 and 3813, and Vol. 11, p. 5936. 



38 



10. The Wolff contract: 

*//,iU y^-r^ {<Lr<r-/tr> *^<sf/A <rrxi C^A J^jfeZJ/frfrrr, J&tefr 

r *?*~y *T^*-*^ *"J/&- -r/yit-r 6^&n 'A *■ r- •- //*~r* *■>*.<!. yW^r*^«V^- <Stsi ! *%*. «XdK-T i) 

J>*tAu£tS <£*: /^U~ «rJ//6 <My£s* >. a~ /%Z7&*rt£* $^X>*a&. '. ^ / - JA '* 
art-**/ -*-y I* //A^ Jt-Cci* ^ T*iir -i-A-^fs-'s-ii^/ <rr*- /5dL <JZ/*x V>-<» (32* ^^ (*& ^^ 

, A /&Au ■&+/£> &**&, j2&> W„ ; ^/ti^ 4Anr£>,j £> /lw sp^&iiO 










39 






\^t^p-t*^^ . 









@ 



11. cf. Frank P. Albright, Johann Ludwig Eberhardt and His Salem 
Clocks, Winston-Salem, NC, 1978. 

12. The cost of the church was £5785 .6 .0, or about $14,460, and £794 
.9.10, or about $1980 for the organ, making a total of about 
$16,442.50. 

13. For a contemporary report cf. Records, Vol. 6, pp. 2947-2952. 

14. For another Easter service, in 1803, the first one in English, cf. 
Records, Vol. 6, p. 2727. 



40 






M 



IL 



i _- M , 



— ifa- r 



^znzr 












Fig. 1 Early plan, foundation level, showing foundation, walls, corridor, 
south entrance, and nursery with fireplace for cooking lovefeast 
coffee. Also vaulted cellar under east end of church. 



-1 



^ 



U i 



BEt 



t2 



t/ 



HMZillZZI r EZEU1 



46' 



// 



[/ 



\ 



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Fig. 2 Early plan at balcony level showing organ location and stairway 
from balcony to attic. Also nursery at balcony level. 



41 






jtr 



s>w 



x *■ 



N 

^ 



Cj- 



^ 






; 



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Fig. 3 Revised plan at main floor very much as built except that nursery 
was omitted. 



42 



> >< 





>i 








1 














- 






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1 


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Fig. 4 Plan of north and south walls. 



43 



4 

( 



yf- .•■ % 



s 



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Fig. 5 Plan of west facade. 



44 




Fig. 6 Drawing of west facade, probably by Marshall. 



45 



i 



H 



, 




Fig. 7 Marshall's drawing of roof truss. Probably taken from a book on 
architecture. 



46 




Fig. 8 Roof truss as built. 



47 





1.1 






+» I 






2 1 






A \ 






1 o| 






vault 




vent 








'-'h 












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1855 




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corridor 




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kitchen 












1870 




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Fi#. 9 77ie lovefeast kitchen 1800-1870. 



48 




Fig. 10 The furnace area under the church: 
1855 , 



1912-1941 

entrance to air conditioner ca. 1920. 



49 



mm 

• I'i 'ill 
\\ % \ I* V '. i \* I *\ 1 1 1 * v 







m < *■« i * » i »i A iii >«. t> mi > '"ii l iiA>i fc > 



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Fig. 11 Northwest corner of church with 1841-1912 corpse house. Also 
Flemish bond brickwork. 



50 




Fig. 12 View inside church from south 1860-1870 showing first gas lights 
and floor boards laid east-west direction. 



51 




Fig. 13 The church in 1866 decorated for the centennial of Salem (draw- 
ing). 



52 






-'. 





Fig. 14 View from the northwest showing 1841 chapel and pastor's dwell- 
ing. 



53 




Fig. 15 1853 drawing from southwest showing corridor walls. 



54 




tit I II M 






1J 



§ m 



Fig. 16 Tannenberg organ and organ gallery with new gas lights after the 
1870 alteration. 



55 




Fig. 17 View to east showing new balconies, new pews, and new chancel 
after the 1870 alteration. 



56 




Fig. 18 View to west (ca. 1900-1912) showing embossed metal ceiling. 



57 




Fig. 19 Organ bellows in the church attic. 



58 



Index 



Aeolian-Skinner 35, 37 

Air Conditioning 34, 36, 37 

Archives 25, 30 

Bachmann, Johann Philip 19 

Baker, Mr. 31 

Balcony (Gallery) 7, 11, 17, 21, 

24, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32 
Becker, Johann Friedrich 21 
Belfry 17, 24 
Bell 17, 18 

Benade, Andreas 17, 24 
Benzien, Christian Lewis 22 
Bethania 13, 28 
Bethlehem 17 
Buttner, Sarah 21 
Carillon 35 

Chandelier 19, 28, 34, 36 
Chimney 9, 27 
Christian Education Building 

35, 36, 37 
Christmann (Daniel) 21 
Clark 19 

Clauder (Carl Gottlob) 21 
Clock 18 
Color, cf. Paint 
Consecration (Dedication) 20, 

21, 22 
Cornerstone 7, 8, 25, 30 
Corpse House 25 
Corridor 9, 11, 12, 26, 27, 34 
Curtains 29, 32 
Door 12, 16, 24, 32 
Durninger 18 
Easter 6, 22 
Eberhardt, Johann Ludwig 18, 

19, 28, 36 
Essie, Joseph 7, 11 
Fetter, Jacob 19 
Fireplace 8, 9, 27 



Flemish bond 10, 13 

Fleshman, Mrs. Mini 35 

Floor 17, 21, 24, 27, 32 

Foundation 7, 8, 9, 26, 32, 34 

Friedberg 6 

Friedland 8 

Furnace 26, 27, 28 

Gas light 28 

Gemein Haus 6, 7, 18, 22, 25 

Gemein Saal 5, 6, 7, 22 

Gnadau 18 

God's Acre 6 

Gold (leaf) 17, 24 

Graham, Geraldine Fleshman 35 

Grieg, William 8 

Heating 25, 26, 27, 30, 34, 35 

Hendricks 19 

Herrnhut 18 

Hus, John 33 

Joist 15, 17 

Kernersville 28 

Kimball organ 30, 31, 33, 37 

Kitchen 8, 9, 13, 29, 34 

Kramsch 22 

Krause, Gottlob 7, 11, 16 

Krause, Hannel 21 

Lamb, J. & R. 32 

Landmann (Jacob Heinrich) 21 

Lamp 28, 29 

Leinbach 19 

Lighting (Lights) 28, 29, 

31, 34, 36 
Lititz 6, 17, 19 
Little Saal 25, 30 
Lot 6, 7 

Lovefeast 9, 13, 22, 29, 34 
Lutheran 13 

Marshall, Fredrick William 6, 21 
Mosaic 32 



59 



Musicians 21, 22 

Nazareth 17 

Northup, W. C. 30, 35 

Nursery 9, 12 

O'Brian (Northup & O'Brian) 35 

Oerter, Albert L. 30 

Organ 7, 19, 20, 31, 33, 34, 

35, 37 

Paint (Color) 17, 18, 19, 21, 23, 

24, 29, 32, 33 
Peddycoart 21 
Peter, Simon 22 
Pew 20, 21, 29, 31, 36 
Pfohl, J. K. 34, 35 
Prague (Bohemia) 33 
Pug-lock 10 

Pulpit 21, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 31 
Purlin 14 
Rafter 14, 15, 16 
Reich, Christoph 21 
Reuter, Christian Gottlieb 5 
Rondthaler Building 30, 31, 35, 

36, 37 

Rondthaler, Edward E. 30, 

34, 35 
Rondthaler, Howard 34 
Roof 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 

23, 31 
Saal 6, 21, 23, 25, 28 
Scaffold 10, 14, 15, 31 
Schober, Gottleib 21 
Schulz, Samuel 18 
Shingles 23 
Shirley, H. A. 54 



Siewers, Gertude 33 
Siewers, Hannah 30, 33 
Siewers, Jacob 24 
Single Brothers 25 
Single Sisters 5, 6, 25 
Soapstone (steatite) 9 
South Fork 6 
Spaugh, R. Gordon 35 
Stained-glass window 30, 31, 

33,37 
Staircase (stairway, stairs) 12, 

13, 17 
Steeple 7, 16, 17, 24 
Stove 25 
Tanbark 17 

Tannenberg, David 7, 19 
Tannenberg organ 7, 25, 30, 31 
Tile 7, 23 

Tommerup, Matthew 18 
Tralle, Harry E. 35 
Truss 14, 15 
Unitas Fratrum 33 
Van Vleck, Jacob 24, 25 
Vault 8, 9, 27 
Venetian blinds 16, 28, 29 
Vestibule 9, 11, 12, 13, 16, 32 
Vogler, Christoph 18, 21 
Weather vane 17, 24 
Window 11, 16, 19, 28, 29, 

31,33 
Wohlfahrt (Elizabeth) 21 
Wolff, Daniel 13 
Wolff, John Adam 13, 16, 23 
Wolff, Lewis 13 



60 



Supplement to The Home Moravian Church 
by Frank P. Albright 

About the Author 

Frank P. Albright, born March 2, 1903, on his family's farm in Minnesota, grew 
up hearing both Swedish and English spoken at home. Frank absorbed information 
about the myriad tasks and responsibilities of survival in the rural and remote north 
country, and he remained very proud of his Swedish heritage. His mother was a 
Schumann, perhaps descended from the brother of the famous composer, Robert 
Schumann. To that he attributes his keen love of music. 

After a minimum of formal education, he left home to seek his fortune. He was 
admitted to Wittenberg University in Springfield, Ohio, and later received the master 
of arts and doctoral degrees in classical archaeology from Johns Hopkins University 
in Baltimore. He enlisted in the Army during World War II, was sent to Europe and 
was assigned to locate and recover art masterworks confiscated and hidden by the 
Nazis and return them to their rightful owners. 

Following the war he was assigned to help with the reopening of German 
schools, museums and churches. Returning from the war, he worked with colleagues 
at Johns Hopkins in archaeological excavations in Oman on the Persian Gulf and 
later in Yemen. Dr. Albright wrote several books about the excavations, complete 
with detailed drawing of the temples and unearthed foundations. 

Back in the United States, he settled in Winston-Salem where he approached 
Frank Horton, of Old Salem, Inc., who hired him as director of museums. In that 
capacity he was responsible for preparing and installing exhibits and for supervising 
the collections. He also repaired clocks and supervised the reassembling of the small 
Tannenberg organ in the saal of the Single Brothers House in 1964. He worked with 
Old Salem until he retired in 1973. 

In 1956 he married Lena Armstrong, a talented enamelist and jeweler who 
received numerous awards for her creations. They joined Home Moravian Church 
and became active members. Dr. Albright's church service included maintenance and 
repairs to the church clock, which he continued even after he was 90 years old. He 
was one of the first church interpreters and soon realized that visitors were interested 
in the history and details of the building as well as that of the Moravian Church itself. 
In 1983, as a result of his own research and his access to records in the Moravian 
Archives and Old Salem, Inc., he wrote this book, The Home Moravian Church, and 
included sketches, drawings and photographs. He is also the author of Johann 
Ludwig Eberhardt and His Salem Clocks. 

Dr. Albright's library included dictionaries of English, German, French, Italian, 
Spanish, Portuguese, Czech, Swedish, Norwegian, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Chinese 
and Arabic. One of his intense interests was the study of the New Testament in the 
original Greek. He wrote many treatises on the subject, and he created many of his 
own Christmas cards with renderings of scenes from Jesus's life as his research 
indicated it should have been, not according to popular belief. 



As his Banner Avenue house became more difficult to maintain, Dr. Albright 
decided to move into an apartment at Salemtowne, the Moravian retirement home, 
in 1990. He remained active, enjoying trips to the mountains, walking around the 
knob at Pilot Mountain, attending the symphony, opera and other musical events. His 
health has gradually declined, and he is now a wheelchair patient in the medical 
center of the home. His gallantry and gentlemanly chivalry remain keen; he often 
offers Ins wheelchair to any lady who happens to be present. He also retains his sense 
of humor and uncanny ability to pun at a moment's notice. 

The world has certainly benefited from the life and work of Frank P. Albright, 
a most unusual and bountifully talented Renaissance man. 

Much of this article was contributed by Margaret Kolb, with additional information 
from Gene Capps. 



Mining for Gems 

This book by Dr. Albright is filled with interesting and little-known facts about the 
history of the physical structure of Home Moravian Church. As you read through the 
book, it's fun and challenging to try to mine these gems of information. 

Here are just a few of the treasures you will find in The Home Moravian Church: 

• The original location for the "bellows boys" who pumped for the organist - and 
the reason they were later moved. 

• The sequence of the stained-glass windows in the sanctuary. 

• The number of turns that the clock spring and the striking spring must still be 
wound by hand each day. 

• The number of years that the congregation met in the sanctuary before it was first 
heated. 

• Why churchgoers of 1838 complained of a crick in the neck - and what they did 
about it. 

• How the original chandeliers were wired so that the electric bulbs would look more 
like real candles. 

• The method and location used by early sisters to dry their clothes - and why they 
stopped doing it. 

• What the early Moravians drank for lovefeasts before coffee became the standard 
fare. 



Renovation and Changes at Home Church since 1983 

Significant work has been completed on the church buildings since Dr. 
Albright's book was published, most as part of a major renovation project that began 
with a capital campaign starting in 1989. The initial impetus for the campaign was 
twofold: the need to remove the aging glass dome atop the Rondthaler Building and 
the need to air condition the Fellowship Hall in the Christian Education Building. 
The dome, the remnant of an assembly room in the Rondthaler Building, had been 
sealed since the 1950s but was leaking and causing structural problems. None of the 
C.E. Building had central air conditioning, although a few rooms had window units. 

Further study revealed that renovation needs were much greater than just those 
two projects and also that the congregation had the resources to meet much broader 
needs. The capital campaign, known as "From Generation to Generation," was 
launched with a minimum goal of $900,000. When the campaign concluded in 1992, 
a total of $1.6 million had been raised. Other major components were added to the 
work to be done, including air conditioning the entire C.E. Building and extensive 
renovation in the sanctuary. 

Work on the C.E. Building began in 1990 and continued intermittently through 
the summer of 1992. In addition to the air conditioning, extensive painting and 
carpeting were done, restrooms were renovated, and four new ones were added. In 
the Fellowship Hall, the ceiling was restored and new lighting installed. The kitchen 
was updated with new fixtures and equipment. 

A major project in the sanctuary was the resurfacing of the ceiling and walls. 
The original plaster ceiling was still in place, covered with canvas in the 1950s to 
control cracking. In 1991, after much experimentation with appearance and 
acoustics, a new ceiling of synthetic stucco was applied. The project involved 
erecting scaffolding floor to ceiling, covering the entire sanctuary. Several pews were 
removed in the process. A fiberglass mesh was placed directly over the old ceiling, 
anchored with screws to joists and trusses wherever possible, but mostly to the old 
plaster itself. The synthetic material was hand-troweled to the mesh, creating a 
strong, lightweight, crack-resistant surface with excellent acoustics. 

Soon after the sanctuary was completed, near tragedy struck, and observers 
credit the new ceiling with helping to avert a major disaster. The day after 
Thanksgiving 1991, after the sanctuary had been readied for Advent, fire broke out 
in the attic. A passerby noticed smoke coming from the belfry and called the Fire 
Department. Quick-thinking firefighters, realizing that they would have to control the 
fire over the choir loft, covered the console of the organ to minimize water damage. 

The fire was contained in the attic, with some structural and ceiling damage. It 
had begun with one of the recessed lighting fixtures, burned some of the attic 
flooring and rafters, and charred some of the lath on the back of the old plaster, 
which served as a heat shield. The new ceiling system provided strength to keep the 
ceiling from cracking and falling through. Had the ceiling opened, the resulting 
updraft would have fed the fire, which might then have spread very quickly. As it 
was, the damage to the attic was repaired within a few days, although repairs to the 
organ took a bit longer. 



Also as part of the sanctuary renovation, restrooms were added to the east side 
of the south vestibule, in space that had previously been outside the building. In 
planning the enclosure, John H. Gardner 111, a Home Church member who was 
overseeing the renovation for Frank L. Blum Construction Co., devised a skylight 
arrangement that allows natural light to continue to illuminate the stained glass 
windows on that wall. As part of the project, the lovefeast serving room was 
renovated, and the door from the serving room to Main Hall of Salem College was 
permanently sealed. 

Br. Gardner also built a pair of removable extensions to the choir loft, used 
during Christmas and other times that large numbers of singers must be 
accommodated. A new sound system was installed in the sanctuary with a 
sophisticated balanced time delay. For people sitting near the back of the room, the 
delay synchronizes the amplified voice with the time it takes the actual voice to reach 
the listeners, creating a more natural sound. A wheelchair ramp was added to the 
north entrance to the sanctuary, and renovations to the sanctuary building were 
completed in the summer of 1991. 

Beginning in mid- 1991, construction began on an addition to the rear of the C.E. 
Building that included an elevator tower, additional restrooms on each floor, and a 
driveway and porte cochere adjacent to the back parking lot. The additions made the 
entire C.E. Building handicapped-accessible. 

In 1992, renovation of the basement of the Rondthaler Building was completed, 
the final phase of work under the From Generation to Generation campaign. That 
included enlarging the Club Room and choir rehearsal room, moving the office of the 
superintendent of building and grounds and upgrading restrooms. 

The most recent major renovation project as of this writing was the renovation 
of the Bishops' House, so called because it has been the home to three Moravian 
bishops, who were also pastors of Home Church, beginning in 1841. The renovation, 
completed in the spring of 1995, included waterproofing the basement, upgrading the 
kitchens, creating meeting rooms on the first floor, the renovation of the apartment 
and guest room on the second floor, and the creation of a "quiet room" for reading 
on the second floor. The work on the Bishops' House, located on Church Street 
adjacent to the C.E. Building, was funded largely by a bequest of Harold and 
Elizabeth Vogler. 

In 1993, solid state electronic controls were installed in the Aeolian-Skinner 
organ in the sanctuary. In 1998, the organ underwent a major restoration, to repair 
several bellows, wind lines, motors and tuning scrolls. Also in 1998, at the urging of 
members and guests who have been seated in the chapel during Christmas lovefeasts, 
improvements were made to the sound system between the sanctuary and the chapel. 

Bob Sawyer, Joe Dempster, Bonnie Dills, Lynda Alexander, Katrina Bodford, Jim 
Salzwedel, and Arthur Spaugh contributed to this article. 

This insert was compiled in October 1998 by Mark Wright. 



UNIVERSITY OF N.C. AT CHAPEL HILL 



00034024582 

FOR USE ONLY IN 
THE NORTH CAROLINA COLLECTION